by Knox News
1900s: - Dr. Alois Alzheimer presents case study and Alzheimer’s disease is named.
1920s: - Amyloid is identified as the core substance of plaques.
1930s: - Familial AD is first suggested.
1940s: - Belief persists that senile dementia is normal part of aging caused by cerebral arteriosclerosis.
1950s: - Biological structure of plaques and tangles is investigated.
1960s: - Landmark study suggests that dementia is directly related to the number of senile plaques present in the cerebral cortex.
- Structure of neurofibrillary tangles is described as “paired helical filaments.”
1970s: - National Institute on Aging is created and assumes lead role in AD research.
- Mini-Mental State Exam is introduced.
- Memory and cholinergic function are linked; reduction of choline acetyltransferase is seen in AD.
- Editorial describes AD as a major public health problem and “Alzheimer’s disease” becomes a common term.
- Coalition of grassroots AD advocacy groups begins to rally public awareness of and interest in AD research.
1980s: - National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria are written.
- Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association forms, becomes the Alzheimer’s Association.
- First Alzheimer’s Disease Research Centers are funded by NIA.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III) categorizes AD.
- Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is established.
- Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) is created by NIA.
- AD is linked to chromosome 21 and amyloid precursor protein.
- Beta-amyloid protein is sequenced.
- NIA forms the Alzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center.
1990s: - Food and Drug Administration approves tacrine (Cognex) following successful clinical trial.
- NIA funds Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study.
- First amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutation is discovered.
- Early onset genes and late onset risk factor gene are discovered.
- First in series of transgenic mice models is created.
- Abnormal tau in neurofibrillary tangles is identified.
- NIA-Reagan criteria for AD pathology diagnosis are developed.
- Mutation in tau gene is cause of some chromosome 17 frontotemporal dementia.
- National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center is formed.
- Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) characteristics are defined.
2000s: - Clinical trials, initiatives, and studies examine cholinesterase inhibitors, anti-inflammatories, vitamins, statins, supplements, valproate, antioxidants, hormones, beta amyloid vaccines and alternative medicines.
- Late Onset Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Study begins.
- Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative is launched.
- Pittsburgh B compound is developed, allowing researchers to “see” amyloid plaques in PET scans.
- Triple transgenic mouse is introduced.
- New focus on translational studies to facilitate drug discovery and development begins.