As the largest resource of information specific to women's brain health, we are sure you will find what you are looking for, and promise that you will discover new information.
Published on: February 16, 2012
A new way of studying Alzheimer’s disease in the laboratory has been developed by scientists at the Wellcome Trust and Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute in Cambridge and will help researchers understand more clearly how the disease progresses in real life.
by Wellcome Trust
The researchers took stem cells created from skin cells donated by volunteers and used them to generate populations of nerve cells that behave just like the cells in a human brain. This model could be used both to follow how Alzheimer’s disease starts and progresses in people and to test and develop potential new treatments for the disease.
Crucially, the cells used were from volunteers with Down’s syndrome. People with Down’s syndrome are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and are often diagnosed with it in middle age; consequently, by using their stem cells, the progression of Alzheimer’s disease can be tracked faster than by using cells from the general population. In the lab, the model develops disease over a matter of months rather than the years or decades that it takes in real life.
Animal models have been used effectively for research into Alzheimer’s disease, but it is difficult to reproduce every aspect of the disease. Using human cells, the new model develops all the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease as it appears in patients’ brains studied post-mortem: it shows the same plaques of a protein called amyloid, as well as ‘tangles’ of another protein called tau, and many other characteristic features.
Amyloid is derived from a precursor called APP (amyloid precursor protein), which is controlled by a gene on chromosome 21. People with Down’s syndrome have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is why they are at greater risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and of developing it at an earlier age than other people. This also explains why using stem cells from people with Down’s syndrome contributes to the increased rate at which the new model progresses in the lab.
Dr Rick Livesey, who led the study (which was published yesterday in ‘Science Translational Medicine’), said: “One of the biggest challenges facing dementia researchers at the moment is a lack of good ways to track the disease over time. By using stem cells donated from people with Down’s syndrome, we have been able to track how the disease develops over a shorter time period than has been possible in the past.
“What is promising about this stem cell technique is that we can create functioning human cortex cells in a dish, allowing us to more closely model what is happening in our brains. Not only this, but our new model shows many of the characteristic features of human Alzheimer’s disease and will allow us to test new treatments more easily.”
Parkinson’s disease (PD) mainly affects the body’s motor system. It’s symptoms – which result from the long-term degeneration of the central nervous system – occur over time and include shaking, difficulty walking, slow movements, and rigidity. People with...
Creativity is a broad concept that is often characterized by the ability to perceive the world in novel ways, to make connections between seemingly unrelated phenomena, and to generate innovative and useful solutions. While creativity was...
Hormones are regulatory substances produced by various glands (such as the thyroid, pituitary, ovaries, and adrenal) that stimulate specific cells in the body. They are carried by the blood to different parts of the body...
The material presented through the Think Tank feature on this website is in no way intended to replace professional medical care or attention by a qualified practitioner. WBHI strongly advises all questioners and viewers using this feature with health problems to consult a qualified physician, especially before starting any treatment. The materials provided on this website cannot and should not be used as a basis for diagnosis or choice of treatment. The materials are not exhaustive and cannot always respect all the most recent research in all areas of medicine.